“Cast a vote for socialism” The irony of someone believing that Johnson voted for “socialism” while claiming that Johnson is “stupid” is rich. Which belief is dumber? That a center-right establishment politician who drives a republican health plan through a dem congress is a socialist, or that Guam could tip over? It’s a toss up.
Anyone, the geology of Guam is quite interesting. It’s karst, and karst is always both lovely and fascinating (was in Vang Vieng in Laos last month, great karst topography)
caves.org/pub/journal/JCKS/P … ylroie.pdf
[ul]Guam’s complex depositional and tectonic histories have endowed it with a unique legacy of karst features. The northern half is a Pleistocene karst plateau in Plio-Pleistocene limestone units that exhibit all the characteristic karst features of carbonate islands, from the simplest to the most complex. The epikarst is similar to that on other carbonate islands. Most closed depressions are broad and shallow, probably reflecting original depositional morphology, although vertical-walled collapse and banana-hole type features are also present. Caves include a few pit caves, some of which are very deep. Traversable stream caves occur where the limestone-basement contact is exposed on the flanks of volcanic outcrops. The most abundant caves are flank margin caves, which can be found all along the modern coast, and which occupy distinct horizons in the faces of the cliff line surrounding the plateau. Discharge features have been documented for three types of coastline around the northern plateau: (1) deeply scalloped embayments with broad beaches; (2) linear beaches fronted by fringing reefs; and (3) sheer cliffs with narrow or no benches, and only occasional small reefs. In the embayments, karst groundwater discharges by diffuse flow from numerous seep fields and as concentrated flow from springs along the beach. Seeps are found along the linear beaches, but we have not noted significant flow from springs or coastal caves. Along the cliff-dominated coast, karst groundwaters discharge in spectacular flows from dissolutionwidened
fractures, coastal caves, and submarine vents, most notably along the northwest coast.[/ul]