Interesting question. I would say probably “no”…
If “Telephone System” refers to the network, then (as @mad_masala mentioned) then really “no”: Everything is digital nowadays. Sometimes metal wires (similar to Bell’s) are still used for data transmission although lots of transmission probably is via optical fibers instead.
If it refers to the telephones themselves (Mobile/Smartphones or landline phones), then I guess it depends on how close you look. Some modern phones’ voice output and input systems could be considered still a bit similar to technologies used in some of Bell’s phone designs:
microphone = sound changing an electrical resistance
speaker = electromagnetically moved membrane
The actual implementation is quite different though, for example MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) devices as microphones in many mobile phones.