I suggest that you got to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to find out.
I did exactly what you are asking about a couple of months ago - i.e. I had a work-based ARC but wanted to change the status since my wife is Taiwanese (the reason for doing this is of course that I can stay here without having to rely on any [unreliable?] employer. Freedom is everything). I have been here 7 or 8 years altogether and made several health checks and AIDS tests and who knows what, all inadmissible.
The MoFA requirements differ from country to country, I saw the list, and that’s why you should find out directly what they require from you. Being Swedish, I had to provide the health check, the full one with AIDS test, defecation samples and the whole shebang. On top of that I of course had to prove my clean, criminality-free background, and I also had to provide documents from Swedish authorities of my marriage to my Taiwanese wife (having a Taiwanese wedding certificate did not count. I was also told that another Swede who had not visited Sweden after getting married in Taiwan still had to have his marriage registered in Sweden first and then get the necessary document from the Swedish authorites before he got his visa.)
All these documents of course have an expiry date, I think it was six months for all, (wedding certificate, criminal record, health check).
For permanent residency, you have to have lived in Taiwan as married to a Taiwanese for 5 years, staying at least 183 days every year. If you have not been married to a Taiwanese, you have to have been here even longer, with an ARC, but you’ll get this info at the MoFA as well.
So, once again, to be sure that you get everything right, ask at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Jinan Rd. in Taipei, or at one of their branch offices in other cities.