(edited according to answers below)
Yes I searched, and I found lots of questions about which one is better - but the discussions after those questions didn’t really go much into the advantages or disadvantages of either. I am now wondering which one to choose (or maybe a “gold card” in case one is eligible). My case is: German citizen, just married, spouse is ROC national, I’m in Taiwan since 2.5 years on a work ARC (and before 3 years work ARC from 2008, inbetween working in Germany). Plus, I’m generally wondering if I could somehow get my ageing retired parents here permanently to take better care of them personally.
Here is my current understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different ARCs (APRCs referred to in point # 2):
1. Work Permit:
++ Marriage ARC: open work permit (can change employers, have multiple ones, have own business, …)
– Work ARC: you can only work for the employer and at the place stated on the ARC
++ Gold Card ARC: open work permit, like marriage based ARC
2. Applying for APRC after X years
++ / – Marriage ARC to Marriage APRC: can apply for APRC after 5 years residency (183days/year) out of the last 10 years (arbitrary, not necessary continuous). APRC is always permanent, can keep even after divorce. But: Need to stay 183 days in Taiwan per year with that APRC (can stay away up to 2 years if you apply first)
Positive: open work permit, don’t need to apply when changing jobs.
++ Work ARC to Work APRC: no stay limitations. Can apply after 5 years residency (183 years) continuous (maybe if married also the 10 year rule above, I’m clarifying this). But no open work permit, so need to apply for work permit when changing jobs.
++Gold Card ARC to gold card APRC: Can apply after 5 years residency (183 years) continuous (maybe if married also the 10 year rule above, I’m clarifying this). According to @irish91 there are plans to allow APRC application already after 3 years. Open work permit, like marriage A§RC
Note: you can only apply for the APRC type according to your current ARC. So if you for example have a work ARC and want a marriage APRC, you first need to change your ARC to a marriage based one.
3. National Health Insurance - NHI
++ Marriage ARC: Enrolled in NHI, at least through spouse
++ Work ARC: Enrolled in NHI through employer
– Gold Card ARC: Need employer, or after 6 months can enroll on own
5. Labor / unemployment Insurance
++ Marriage ARC: Yes
– Work ARC: Only if married
?? Gold Card ARC: ???
6. Can foreign parents join the ARC holder in Taiwan permanently
– Marriage ARC: No
– Work ARC: No
++ Gold Card ARC: No, but for longer at a time than other ARCs
++ Marriage ARC: first 1 year, then 2 years, then 2 years (maybe different when having a work based ARC before?)
++ Work ARC: first 1 year (up to 3 years, depending on contract - thanks @tando), then 3 years if keeping same job (experience of to @squall1)
++ Gold Card ARC: “up to” 3 years for the first one
8. Going abroad
– Marriage ARC: need to stay 183 days in Taiwan per year (maybe can stay longer if you apply first)
++ Work ARC: No such limitation (Thanks, @tando - seems really no limit here)
++ Gold Card ARC: No such limitation