Austronesian etymology and loanwords

I looked around and have no idea where to share this info. I realized I’ve created a bunch of threads on my small random discoveries in the past. Perhaps with this more general title, mods can merge some of them here as well.

Panay is a popular Pangcah Amis girl name. It means rice in the fields. It’s also the name of the lead character of the 2015 film Wawa No Cidal. The English title for the movie is simply Panay.

The word Panay came from the PAn root word *pajay.

In Taiwan, *pajay became panay, pagay, pazay, palay, paday. When Austronesian langauges expanded out of Taiwan, all these forms were also propagated as well.

In Tagalog, we have pálay meaning rice plant, and palay-an meaning rice fields. In some languages, pagey means unhusked rice.

The word came to mean rice fields in some areas, such as in padi in Malay and Bali.

When the English got to Malaysia, they borrowed the Malay word for rice fields, and that’s how we ended up with paddy, as in rice paddies.

Ultimately, that English word came from Taiwan.

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Just saw a word list of reconstructed Proto-Kra-dai, which is a language family that includes Thai.

Gloss Proto-Kra–Dai
blood *pɤlaːc
bone *Kudɤːk
ear *qɤrɤː
eye *maTaː
hand *(C)imɤː
nose *(ʔ)idaŋ
tongue *(C)əmaː
tooth *lipan
dog *Kamaː
fish *balaː
horn *paquː
louse *KuTuː
fire *(C)apuj
stone *KaTiːl
star *Kadaːw
water *(C)aNam
I (1.SG) *akuː
Thou (2.SG) *isuː; amɤː
one *(C)itsɤː
two *saː
die *maTaːj
name *(C)adaːn
full *pətiːk
new *(C)amaːl
‘thin’ *C-báːŋ
‘bone’ *Cudə́ːk
‘boat’ *Cuɖáː
‘borrow’ *C-ɟáːm
‘village’ *Cəˀbáːnʔ
‘winnow basket’ *Cəˀdóŋʔ
‘to stand’ *Cəˀɟún
‘dog’ *kʰ[u]máː
‘ditch’ *[t]-m̥ˠáːŋ
‘ant’ *r-móȶ
‘bear’ *kəˀmˠúj
‘thick’ *tsəˀnáː
‘cold’ *kəˀȵít
‘stupid’ *Cəˀŋáːŋh
‘gills’ *Cəˀŋˠáːk
‘taro’ *pəˀrˠáːk
‘moan’ *gəˀráːŋ
‘hungry’ *məˀjáːk
‘stupid’ *Cəˀwáːʔ

I mean, most of those are almost exactly the same as Proto-Austronesian…

Gloss Proto-Kra–Dai Proto-Austronesian
blood *pɤlaːc *biRaq
eye *maTaː *maCa
hand *(C)imɤː *qa-lima
tongue *(C)əmaː *Sema
tooth *lipan *ŋipen
louse *KuTuː *kuCux
fire *(C)apuj *Sapuy
water *(C)aNam *daNum
I (1.SG) *akuː *aku
Thou (2.SG) *isuː; amɤː *i-kaSu
one *(C)itsɤː *isa
two *saː *duSa
die *maTaːj *ma-aCay
‘borrow’ *C-ɟáːm *Sezam
‘bear’ *kəˀmˠúj *Cumay
‘taro’ *pəˀrˠáːk *biRaq

So many cognates. Although, the two seem to have split before boat was invented, as it’s *Cuɖáː in Proto-Kra-Dai and *qabaŋ in Proto-Austronesian.

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